For purposes of this guidance, we use certain terms with the following specific meanings:
- Current Good Manufacturing Practice (CGMP) refers to requirements in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act), section 501(a)(2)(B), for all drugs and active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). For finished human and animal drugs, the term includes applicable requirements under 21 CFR parts 210 and 211. For biologics, the term includes additional applicable requirements under 21 CFR parts 600-680.
- Commercial manufacturing refers to manufacturing processes that result in a drug or drugs intended to be marketed, distributed, or sold.
- Commercial manufacturing does not include research and development activities, manufacturing of material for investigational new drug studies (e.g., clinical trials, expanded access), or manufacturing of material for veterinary investigational drugs. Although this guidance does not explicitly apply to the manufacture of investigational, developmental, or clinical trial materials, FDA believes that quality agreements can be extremely valuable in delineating the activities of all parties involved in contract research and development arrangements. Many of the principles described in this guidance could be applied in pre-commercial stages of the pharmaceutical life cycle.Manufacturing includes processing, packing, holding, labeling operations, testing, and quality unit operations.
- A manufacturer is an entity that engages in CGMP activities, including implementation of oversight and controls over the manufacture of drugs to ensure quality.
- Quality unit is defined as synonymous with the term quality control unit.
This guidance covers commercial manufacturing of the following categories of drugs: human drugs, veterinary drugs, certain combination products, biological and biotechnology products, finished products, APIs, drug substances, in-process materials, and drug constituents of combination drug/device products. This guidance does not cover the following types of products: Type A medicated articles and medicated feed, medical devices, dietary supplements, or human cells, tissues, or cellular or tissue-based products regulated solely under section 361 of the Public Health Service Act and 21 CFR part 1271.