The purpose of this guidance is to clarify the role of data integrity in current good manufacturing practice (CGMP) for drugs, as required in 21 CFR parts 210, 211, and 212. Unless otherwise noted, the term CGMP in this guidance refers to CGMPs for drugs (including biologics). FDA’s authority for CGMP comes from section 501(a)(2)(B) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act). Part 210 covers Current Good Manufacturing Practice in Manufacturing, Processing, Packing, or Holding of Drugs; General; part 211 covers Current Good Manufacturing Practice for Finished Pharmaceuticals; and part 212 covers Current Good Manufacturing Practice for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Drugs. All citations to parts 211 and 212 in this document pertain to finished pharmaceuticals and PET drugs, but these requirements are also consistent with Agency guidance on CGMP for active pharmaceutical ingredients with respect to data integrity. This guidance provides the Agency’s current thinking on the creation and handling of data in accordance with CGMP requirements.
FDA expects that all data be reliable and accurate (see the “Background” section). CGMP regulations and guidance allow for flexible and risk-based strategies to prevent and detect data integrity issues. Firms should implement meaningful and effective strategies to manage their data integrity risks based on their process understanding and knowledge management of technologies and business models.
Meaningful and effective strategies should consider the design, operation, and monitoring of systems and controls based on risk to patient, process, and product. Management’s involvement in and influence on these strategies is essential in preventing and correcting conditions that can lead to data integrity problems. It is the role of management with executive responsibility to create a quality culture where employees understand that data integrity is an organizational core value and employees are encouraged to identify and promptly report data integrity issues. In the absence of management support of a quality culture, quality systems can break down and lead to CGMP noncompliance.